Conférences : Jan Kiely et Richard Madsen

Dans le cadre de son cycle de conférences “Mapping Networks of Modern Chinese Buddhism: Emerging Patterns and Centralities” 圖繪近現代漢傳佛教網絡:多模式與多中心的興起, le CEIB accueillera Jan Kiely (Geneva Graduate Institute) et Richard Madsen (University of California) le vendredi 31 mai 2024. Les deux conférences, financées par la Buddhist Compassion Relief Tzu Chi Foundation, seront données en anglais, et auront lieu dans l’Auditorium Dumézil de la rue de Lille.


Conférence de Jan Kiely

“Yin-Cheng Distinguished Lecture”

Titre : The Extraordinary Ordinary, Consequential Buddhist Patterns to Huaihai Region History, circa 1880-1960 / 1880-1960年間淮海地區歷史上非同尋常的平凡而深遠的佛教型態

Résumé :

If touching on the Buddhist network modes suggested by Welch, this paper primarily concerns patterns of discernibly Buddhist social-cultural practices, performances, and representations of consequence to local-regional histories of the end of the imperial era and the rise of the Chinese nation-state. It is not an attempt to tell a Buddhist or religious history, but recognizes, within a “six-teachings-in-one” (Buddhist-Confucian-Daoist-local religion-Wu-ist-secularist) social-culture, distinctive Chinese Buddhist elements significant to the processes and leavening dynamics of local and regional history in these turbulent times. Shifting the focus away from the well-known Jiangnan metro-area and toward its peripheral and largely abstracted northern antithesis – Jiangbei/Subei, the analysis is situated in a culturally coherent-enough subregion once known as Huaihai. Drawn mostly from non-Buddhist and non-religious sources and some fieldwork, the findings fit comfortably neither with Welch’s supposition of a predominant northern Jiangsu Buddhism nor with common postulations of a withered Buddhism, indistinct in the mélange of a “backward” culture. Many of the patterns discussed may seem hardly surprising, even ordinary. Yet, reflecting on stories of Buddhist monks, nuns, lay women and men, as well as those of people and places that might be considered even more “impure” in their relationship to Buddhism, the study detects Buddhist social-cultural resources extraordinary in their contributions to shaping and revealing historical change in this setting.

從韋爾奇 (Welch)提出的佛教網絡模式出發,本文著重探討在皇帝時代結束和中國民族國家崛起之際佛教中顯見的社會文化實踐、表演和表述模式對地方區域史的影響。本文並非試圖講述一段佛教史或宗教史,而是希望在“六教合一”(佛教-儒教-道教-地方宗教-巫教-世俗主義)的社會文化中闡釋中國佛教特有元素對這一動蕩時代地方區域的歷史進程的重要意義。本研究把關注點從眾所周知的江南核心區域轉移到其外圍、很大程度上被抽象化的對立面即所謂的“江北/蘇北“,深入研究一個在文化上具有足夠連貫性、曾被稱為淮海的區域。基於非佛教、非宗教的史料及田野調查,本文研究結果並不支持韋爾奇關於蘇北佛教佔主導地位的假設,也不認同關於佛教在“落後”文化中凋零、模糊不清的常見說法。所討論的許多模式似乎並不令人驚訝,甚至很普通。通過反思那些關於佛教僧尼、居士以及那些在與佛教的關係上可能被認為更“不純粹”的人和地方的故事,本研究挖掘出佛教所提供的社會文化資源在塑造和顯露這一歷史變化中所具有的非凡意義。

Discutant : Vincent Goossaert (Research professor, Daoist studies, EPHE, PSL)

Jan Kiely is Senior Lecturer in the Department of International History and Politics at the Geneva Graduate Institute.  He was formerly Professor and Director of the Center for China Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Co-Director and Associate Professor at the Johns Hopkins University-Nanjing University Center for Chinese and American Studies. He is the author of The Compelling Ideal: Thought Reform and the Prison in China, 1901-1956, and of a number of articles, including studies of Buddhists in modern Chinese history.  Kiely is co-editor of Modern Chinese Religion II: 1850-2015, Recovering Buddhism in Modern China, and Fieldwork in Modern Chinese History: A Research Guide, and was an editor for the journal Twentieth Century China. He received his Ph.D. in History from the University of California at Berkeley.

Vincent Goossaert (PhD, EPHE, Paris, 1997) is Professor of Daoism and Chinese religions at EPHE, PSL. He is co-editor of T’oung Pao, a leading journal in sinology established in 1890. His research deals with the social history of Chinese religion in late imperial and modern times, especially Daoism, religious professions, socio-religious regulations, productions of moral norms, and human-divine sociability. He has published about twenty books, including Making the Gods Speak. The Ritual Production of Revelation in Chinese History (Harvard University Asia Center, 2022), Heavenly Masters. Two Thousand Years of the Daoist State (University of Hawai’i Press & Chinese University Press, 2021), Vies des saints exorcistes. Hagiographies taoïstes, 11 e -16 e siècles (Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2021), and Bureaucratie et salut. Devenir un dieu en Chine (Geneva, Labor et fides, 2017).


Conférence de Richard Madsen

Titre : The Globalization of Taiwan Buddhism

Résumé :

Taiwanese Humanistic Buddhism (or Buddhism in the human realm) predominates in Taiwan’s new middle classes, people who have prospered, as Taiwan has prospered, by embracing higher education and participating in an economy based on export of high-tech products. This has led to three forms of engagement with the modern, globalized world. The first is geographical:  Middle class Chinese from Taiwan are now spread around the world in pursuit of business or professional opportunities. The second is professional: they are engaged with transnational scientific or social scientific professional networks and with the practical enterprises enabled by these professions.  The third is existential: like counterparts around the world, middle class Taiwanese face the disorienting problems of meaning that come even despite material success, from loss of traditional family ties and difficulties of finding larger meaning within incomprehensibly complex, rapidly changing social and economic systems.

These different forms of engagement with modern globalization raise sets of interconnected problems. While aspiring to address the full set of problems, different humanistic Buddhist organizations start to address them by focusing on a different part of the set. Buddha’s Light Mountain strives to build modern forms of Taiwanese-Chinese community in places where the diaspora has gathered. It is a kind of community built on reverence toward an imagined Chinese cultural tradition which nonetheless through hospitality and educational programs is extremely open to engaging with outsiders. Tzu-chi – Buddhist Compassionate Relief Society – strives to connect with modern NGOs to bring modern medical care and social services to people of all religions and cultures suffering from the multiple natural and human made disasters of the modern world. Dharma Drum Mountain seeks to address the pervasive existential anxiety by promoting the practice of Chan in a way that can accommodate the life-styles of seekers from all cultures and traditions. 

These different approaches each pose distinctive sets of challenges for the organization. One challenge is cultural. The Buddhism of each organization is embedded in a Chinese cultural tradition which has been shaped by its particular localization in Taiwan. But each needs to transcend that culture, without losing it completely. The different approaches lead to different ways of doing this and different patterns of success and failure. Another challenge is social. Each has to maintain its distinctive identity while carrying out a wide variety of enterprises over great distances in a very complicated world. Should they create a centralized organization to ensure uniformity? How centralized and maintained by what kind of authority? Or should they rely on a decentralized way of propagating their dharma? If so, how to avoid becoming completely diffuse? 

Each approach helps to build and relies upon distinctive forms of social networks, ranging from more closed forms with relatively deep ties among people who share many common experiences to more open, ramifying forms with people who have little direct knowledge of each other. Each of these forms is challenged as the organizations grow in size and complexity in the course of engaging with global modernity. Each organization has to try different “skillful means” to maintain or to move away from its balance of closed and open networks. 

Richard Madsen is a distinguished Professor of Sociology the University of California, San Diego and was a co-director of a Ford Foundation project to help revive the academic discipline of sociology in China. Professor Madsen is the author, or co-author of twelve books on Chinese culture, American culture, and international relations. He has also written scholarly articles on how to compare cultures and how to facilitate dialogue among them.


Informations pratiques

Pour participer à distance à la conférence de Jan Kiely : lien vers le Livestream en anglais

Pour participer à distance à la conférence de Richard Madsen : lien vers le formulaire

Organisation : Amandine Péronnet, Antoine Cid


OpenEdition vous propose de citer ce billet de la manière suivante :
CEIB (26 mars 2024). Conférences : Jan Kiely et Richard Madsen. Les Cahiers du CEIB. Consulté le 20 juillet 2024 à l’adresse https://doi.org/10.58079/w43t


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